Angiology 2023 Jan 18;33197231153204.
Giada Zanini, Valentina Selleri, Luca Roncati, Francesca Coppi, Milena Nasi, Alberto Farinetti, Antonio Manenti, Marcello Pinti, Anna Vittoria Mattioli
Vascular sequelae following (SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease) (COVID)-19 infection are considered as "Long Covid (LC)" disease, when occurring 12 weeks after the original infection. The paucity of specific data can be obviated by translating pathophysiological elements from the original Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (SARS-CoV-2) infection (In a microcirculatory system, a first "endotheliitis," is often followed by production of "Neutrophil Extracellular Trap," and can evolve into a more complex leukocytoklastic-like and hyperimmune vasculitis. In medium/large-sized vessels, this corresponds to endothelial dysfunction, leading to an accelerated progression of pre-existing atherosclerotic plaques through an increased deposition of platelets, circulating inflammatory cells and proteins. Associated dysregulated immune and pro-coagulant conditions can directly cause thrombo-embolic arterial or venous complications. In order to implement appropriate treatment, physicians need to consider vascular pathologies observed after SARS-Cov-2 infections as possible "LC" disease.
Keywords: COVID-19; arterial thrombosis; inflammation; long COVID; vascular complications; vasculitis.