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Eating and Endothelial Dysfunction

Scientific Updates Sponsored by Endothelix Inc. ****************************************************

Obes Rev. 2016 Jul 28

Eating and arterial endothelial function: a meta-analysis of the acute effects of meal consumption on flow-mediated dilation.

Thom NJ1, Early AR2, Hunt BE2, Harris RA3, Herring MP4,5.

  • 1Department of Biology, Wheaton College, Wheaton, IL, USA.

  • 2Applied Health Science Department, Wheaton College, Wheaton, IL, USA.

  • 3Georgia Prevention Institute, August University, Augusta, GA, USA.

  • 4Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.

  • 5Health Research Institute (HRI), University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.


Given that endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, exploring the parameters that modify postprandial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is important for public health. The objectives of the study are to estimate the population effect of meal ingestion on FMD and to determine how the effect varied based on patient characteristics and modifiable methodological features. Articles published before June 2015 were located using MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science. One hundred fifty-four effects were derived from 78 articles involving 2,548 subjects were selected. Included articles required measurement of FMD in adults before and after meal ingestion. Effects were analysed using an unstandardized mean gain random effects model, and significant moderators were analysed using meta-regression. Meal consumption significantly reduced FMD by a heterogeneous mean effect size delta (Δ) of -2.03 (95% CI: [-2.28, -1.77]), an ~2% reduction in FMD. FMD reductions were larger among normal weight individuals, males, those with a cardio-metabolic disorder, those with elevated baseline FMD, and individuals with impaired glucose tolerance at baseline.

Macronutrient meal ingestion significantly reduced FMD, an effect that was moderated by body mass index, sex and two-way interactions between disease status and both baseline FMD and baseline blood glucose levels.

© 2016 World Obesity.

Trials. 2016 Aug 2;17:378

Endothelial Dysfunction in Resuscitated Cardiac Arrest (ENDO-RCA)

Meyer AS1, Ostrowski SR2, Kjaergaard J3, Johansson PI2,4, Hassager C3.


Morbidity and mortality following initial survival of cardiac arrest remain high despite great efforts to improve resuscitation techniques and post-resuscitation care, in part due to the ischemia-reperfusion injury secondary to the restoration of the blood circulation. Patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest display evidence of endothelial injury and coagulopathy (hypocoagulability, hyperfibrinolysis), which in associated with poor outcome. Recent randomized controlled trials have revealed that treatment with infusion of prostacyclin reduces endothelial damage after major surgery and AMI. Thus, a study is pertinent to investigate if prostacyclin infusion as a therapeutic intervention reduces endothelial damage without compromising, or even improving, the hemostatic competence in resuscitated cardiac arrest patients. Post-cardiac arrest patients frequently have a need for vasopressor therapy (catecholamines) to achieve the guideline-supported blood pressure goals. To evaluate a possible catecholamine interaction with the primary endpoints of this study, included patients will be randomized into two different blood pressure goals within guideline-recommended targets.

A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind investigator-initiated pilot trial in 40 out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest (OHCA) patients will be conducted. Patients will be randomly assigned to either the active treatment group (48 hours of active study drug (iloprost, 1 ng/kg/min) or to the control group [placebo (saline) infusion]. Target mean blood pressure levels will be allocated 1:1 to 65 mmHg or approximately 75 mmHg, which gives four different permutations, namely: (i) iloprost/65 mHg, (ii) iloprost/75 mmHg, (iii) placebo/65 mmHg, and (iv) placebo/75 mmHg. All randomized patients will be treated in accordance with state-of-the art therapy including targeted temperature management. The primary endpoint of this study is change in biomarkers indicative of endothelial activation and damage, [soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), sE-selectin, syndecan-1, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (sVEGF), nucleosomes] and sympathoadrenal over activation (epinephrine/norepinephrine) from baseline to 48 hours post-randomization. The secondary endpoints of this trial will include: (1) the hemostatic profile [change in functional hemostatic blood test (thrombelastography (TEG) and whole blood platelet aggregometry (multiplate)) blood cell and endothelial cell-derived microparticles]; (2) feasibility of blood pressure target intervention (target 90 %); (3) interaction of primary endpoints and blood pressure target; (4) levels of neuron-specific enolase at 48 hours post-inclusion according to blood pressure targets.


The ENDO-RCA study is a pilot study trial that investigates safety and efficacy of low-dose infusion of prostacyclin administration as compared to standard therapy in post-cardiac arrest syndrome patients.

Hypertensive response to exercise: mechanisms and clinical implication.

Kim D1, Ha JW1

1Cardiology Division, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752 Republic of Korea.

A hypertensive response to exercise (HRE) is frequently observed in individuals without hypertension or other cardiovascular disease. However, mechanisms and clinical implication of HRE is not fully elucidated. Endothelial dysfunction and increased stiffness of large artery contribute to development of HRE. From neurohormonal aspects, excess stimulation of sympathetic nervous system and augmented rise of angiotensin II seems to be important mechanism in HRE. Increasing evidences indicates that a HRE is associated with functional and structural abnormalities of left ventricle, especially when accompanied by increased central blood pressure. A HRE harbors prognostic significance in future development of hypertension and increased cardiovascular events, particularly if a HRE is documented in moderate intensity of exercise. As supported by previous studies, a HRE is not a benign phenomenon, however, currently, whether to treat a HRE is controversial with uncertain treatment strategy. Considering underlying mechanisms, angiotensin receptor blockers and beta blockers can be suggested in individuals with HRE, however, evidences for efficacy and outcomes of treatment of HRE in individuals without hypertension is scarce and therefore warrants further studies.

Exercise-induced hypertension, cardiovascular events, and mortality in patients undergoing exercise stress testing: a systematic review and meta-analysis.


The prognostic relevance of a hypertensive response to exercise (HRE) is ill-defined in individuals undergoing exercise stress testing. The study described here was intended to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature to determine the value of exercise-related blood pressure (BP) (independent of office BP) for predicting cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality.

METHODS: Online databases were searched for published longitudinal studies reporting exercise-related BP and CV events and mortality rates.

RESULTS: We identified for review 12 longitudinal studies with a total of 46,314 individuals without significant coronary artery disease, with total CV event and mortality rates recorded over a mean follow-up of 15.2±4.0 years. After adjustment for age, office BP, and CV risk factors, an HRE at moderate exercise intensity carried a 36% greater rate of CV events and mortality (95% CI, 1.02-1.83, P = 0.039) than that of subjects without an HRE. Additionally, each 10mm Hg increase in systolic BP during exercise at moderate intensity was accompanied by a 4% increase in CV events and mortality, independent of office BP, age, or CV risk factors (95% CI, 1.01-1.07, P = 0.02). Systolic BP at maximal workload was not significantly associated with the outcome of an increased rate of CV, whether analyzed as a categorical (HR=1.49, 95% CI, 0.90-2.46, P = 0.12) or a continuous (HR=1.01, 95% CI, 0.98-1.04, P = 0.53) variable.

CONCLUSIONS: An HRE at moderate exercise intensity during exercise stress testing is an independent risk factor for CV events and mortality. This highlights the need to determine underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced hypertension

Skin Endothelial Function: A Window to Heart and Kidney

[Skin] Microvascular endothelial dysfunction is associated with albuminuria and CKD in older adults

Seliger SL, Salimi S, Pierre V, Giffuni J, Katzel L, Parsa A


BACKGROUND: Impairment in glomerular endothelial function likely plays a major role in the development of albuminuria and CKD progression. Glomerular endothelial dysfunction may reflect systemic microvascular dysfunction, accounting in part for the greater cardiovascular risk in patients with albuminuria. Prior studies of vascular function in CKD have focused on conduit artery function or those with ESRD, and have not examined microvascular endothelial function with albuminuria.

METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among older hypertensive male veterans with stage 1-4 CKD, and hypertensive controls without CKD. Microvascular function was quantified by two distinct Laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) measures: peak responses to 1) post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and 2) thermal hyperemia (TH), measured on forearm skin. Associations of each LDF measure with albuminuria, eGFR, and CKD status were estimated using correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression, accounting for potential confounders.

RESULTS: Among 66 participants (mean age 69.2 years), 36 had CKD (mean eGFR 46.1 cc/min/1.73 m(2); 30.6 % with overt albuminuria). LDF responses to PORH and TH were 43 and 39 % significantly lower in multivariate analyses among those with macroalbuminuria compared to normoalbuminuria, (β= – 0.42, p = 0.009 and β= -0.37, p = 0.01, respectively). Those with CKD had a 23.9 % lower response to PORH compared to controls (p = 0.02 after adjustment). In contrast, TH responses did not differ between those with and without CKD.


Microvascular endothelial function was strongly associated with greater albuminuria and CKD, independent of diabetes and blood pressure. These findings may explain in part the excess systemic cardiovascular risk associated with albuminuria and CKD.

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