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Emerging Evidence Linking the Liver to the Cardiovascular System: Liver-derived Secretory Factors

J Clin Transl Hepatol.2023 Oct 28;11(5):1246-1255.


Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, accumulating evidence has revealed hepatic mediators, termed as liver-derived secretory factors (LDSFs), play an important role in regulating CVDs such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, thrombosis, myocardial infarction, heart failure, metabolic cardiomyopathy, arterial hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension. LDSFs presented here consisted of microbial metabolite, extracellular vesicles, proteins, and microRNA, they are primarily or exclusively synthesized and released by the liver, and have been shown to exert pleiotropic actions on cardiovascular system. LDSFs mainly target vascular endothelial cell, vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, macrophages and platelets, and further modulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide, endothelial function, energy metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and dystrophic calcification. Although some LDSFs are known to be detrimental/beneficial, controversial findings were also reported for many. Therefore, more studies are required to further explore the causal relationships between LDSFs and CVDs and uncover the exact mechanisms, which is expected to extend our understanding of the crosstalk between the liver and cardiovascular system and identify potential therapeutic targets. Furthermore, in the case of patients with liver disease, awareness should be given to the implications of these abnormalities in the cardiovascular system. These studies also underline the importance of early recognition and intervention of liver abnormalities in the practice of cardiovascular care, and a multidisciplinary approach combining hepatologists and cardiologists would be more preferable for such patients.

Keywords: Cardiovascular system; Extracellular vesicle; Hepatokine; Liver; Metabolite.

© 2023 Authors.


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