Pleotropic Effects of Polyphenols in Cardiovascular System
Numerous epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate the beneficial effects of naturally occurring, polyphenol supplementations, on cardiovascular system. The present review emphasizes on the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disorders (involving heart and blood vessels), and overview of preclinical and clinical trials on polyphenols for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The review collaborates PUBMED, Google Scholar and Research gate databases, which were explored using keywords and their combinations such as polyphenols, cardiovascular disease, flavonoids, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular risk factors and several others, to create an eclectic manuscript. The potency and efficacy of these polyphenols are mainly depending upon the amount of consumption and bioavailability. Recent data showed that polyphenols also exert beneficial actions on vascular system by blocking platelet aggregation and oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), ameliorating endothelial dysfunction, reducing blood pressure, improving antioxidant defenses and alleviating inflammatory responses. Several studies evidently support the cardioprotective actions mediated by polyphenols, however, some studies or long-term follow-up of human studies, did not demonstrate decisive outcomes because of variations in dose regimen and lack of appropriate controls. Therefore, more data is required to explore the therapeutic benefits of bioactive compounds as a preventive therapy for CVDs.
Keywords: Antioxidant defenses; Cardiovascular disease; Hyperlipidemia; Platelet aggregation; Polyphenol. View Full-Text
Nutrients Dec 2;7(12):10032-52
Concord Grape Juice Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Dose-Response Relationships
Jeffrey B Blumberg 1, Joseph A Vita 2, C-Y Oliver Chen 3
1 Antioxidants Research Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA. email@example.com.
2 Evans Department of Medicine and the Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
3 Antioxidants Research Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
Abstract Pure fruit juices provide nutritional value with evidence suggesting some of their benefits on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk may be derived from their constituent polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. However, few data from clinical trials are available on the dose-response relationship of fruit juice flavonoids to these outcomes. Utilizing the results of clinical trials testing single doses, we have analyzed data from studies of 100% Concord grape juice by placing its flavonoid content in the context of results from randomized clinical trials of other polyphenol-rich foods and beverages describing the same outcomes but covering a broader range of intake. We selected established biomarkers determined by similar methods for measuring flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and the resistance of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) to oxidation. Despite differences among the clinical trials in the treatment, subjects, and duration, correlations were observed between the dose and FMD. Inverse dose-response relationships, albeit with lower correlation coefficients, were also noted for the other outcomes. These results suggest a clear relationship between consumption of even modest serving sizes of Concord grape juice, flavonoid intake, and effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This approach to dose-response relationships may prove useful for testing other individual foods and beverages. Keywords: LDL oxidation; blood pressure; cardiovascular risk factors; concord grape juice; flavonoids; flow-mediated dilation; platelet aggregation; polyphenols.
Unhealthy lifestyle and dietary choices can lead to the cardiovascular complications and the cost of its treatment is extravagant. In some recent studies, it is observed that the treatment of CVDs and many other diseases can be made possible by the polyphenols which are present in some medicinal plants. In vivo, in vitro and numerous clinical trials have reported that the consumption of polyphenol rich diet may be significantly beneficial in the prevention and treatment of CVDs due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelets and other pleiotropic actions. Moreover, polyphenols tend to ameliorate the levels of TG, CRP, LDL and VLDL which results in reduction of cardiovascular complications as well lower the risk of co-morbidities associated with it. Despite the various preclinical and clinical trials, convenient evidences are required to confirm the beneficial therapeutic effects of polyphenols in the prophylaxis and cure of cardiovascular complications. Some improvements in parameters such as standardize dosage and interventional period are still required, which will further enable to set up a standardized treatment of polyphenols, available either in the extract and juices.