Nutrients 2021 Jan 19;13(1):274. Effects of Caloric Restriction Diet on Arterial Hypertension and Endothelial Dysfunction Nicola Di Daniele 1, Giulia Marrone 1 2, Manuela Di Lauro 1, Francesca Di Daniele 1 2, Daniela Palazzetti 1, Cristina Guerriero 1, Annalisa Noce 1 Affiliations collapse Affiliations
1 UOC of Internal Medicine-Center of Hypertension and Nephrology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy.
2 School of Applied Medical, Surgical Sciences, University of Rome Tor Vergata, via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy.
Abstract The most common manifestation of cardiovascular (CV) diseases is the presence of arterial hypertension (AH), which impacts on endothelial dysfunction. CV risk is associated with high values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and depends on the presence of risk factors, both modifiable and not modifiable, such as overweight, obesity, physical exercise, smoking, age, family history, and gender. The main target organs affected by AH are the heart, brain, vessels, kidneys, and eye retina. AH onset can be counteracted or delayed by adopting a proper diet, characterized by a low saturated fat and sodium intake, a high fruit and vegetable intake, a moderate alcohol consumption, and achieving and maintaining over time the ideal body weight. In this review, we analyzed how a new nutritional approach, named caloric restriction diet (CRD), can provide a significant reduction in blood pressure values and an improvement of the endothelial dysfunction. In fact, CRD is able to counteract aging and delay the onset of CV and neurodegenerative diseases through the reduction of body fat mass, systolic and diastolic values, free radicals production, and oxidative stress. Currently, there are few studies on CRD effects in the long term, and it would be advisable to perform observational studies with longer follow-up. Keywords: arterial hypertension; caloric restriction diet; endothelial dysfunction; intermittent fasting; organ damage. Full-Text