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Pericardial fat volume is related to endothelial-mediated coronary blood flow in women with suspected coronary microvascular dysfunction.

A report from the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation-Coronary Vascular Dysfunction (WISE-CVD) study

Am Heart J Plus.2024 Mar 7:40:100379.


Abstract


Background: Coronary microvascular dysfunction is prevalent in women with signs and symptoms of ischemia but no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and is associated with an adverse prognosis. Elevated pericardial fat volume predicts adverse cardiac events, but mechanistic pathways of the association are not well understood.

 

Methods: 118 women enrolled in the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation-Coronary Vascular Dysfunction study with suspected coronary microvascular dysfunction but no obstructive CAD underwent adenosine stress 1.5 T cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) imaging and invasive coronary reactivity testing. Semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPR) index was derived from perfusion images. Pericardial fat volume was measured by manually contouring the cardiac margins and adjacent adipose tissue on a single trans-axial HASTE slice at the level of the left main coronary artery origin and indexed to body surface-area. Simple standard deviation analysis obtained for continuous variables and frequency (percent) for categorical variables. The relationships between pericardial fat volume and coronary reactivity testing parameters were examined by correlation and multivariable regression analyses.


Results: Women with suspected coronary microvascular dysfunction had a mean age of 55 ± 10 years, body mass index (BMI) of 28 ± 7 kg/m2, 44 % had a history of smoking, 63 % hypertension, 8 % diabetes, and 20 % dyslipidemia. CMR imaging-derived pericardial fat volume and coronary blood flow response to intracoronary acetylcholine (Δ CBF) were negatively correlated (r = -0.32, p = 0.0013). After adjustment for age, number of risk factors, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and cold pressor diameter response, pericardial fat volume remained a significant predictor of Δ coronary blood flow (p = 0.04). There was no association with other coronary reactivity testing measures or CMRI derived MPR index.

 

Conclusions: Among women with suspected coronary microvascular dysfunction but no obstructive CAD, pericardial fat volume appears to be related in a hypothesized adverse direction to coronary microvascular endothelial function. These results support further work confirming and extending these results to investigate pericardial fat volume as mechanistic pathway and potential treatment target for coronary microvascular dysfunction-related adverse events.Trial registration: clinicaltrials.govNCT00832702.

 

Keywords: Coronary microvascular dysfunction; Imaging biomarkers; Pericardial fat volume.

© 2024 The Author(s).



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