J Adv Res eCollection 2021 Jan. Role of hydrogen sulfide in endothelial dysfunction: Pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches Valentina Citi 1, Alma Martelli 1, Era Gorica 1, Simone Brogi 1, Lara Testai 1, Vincenzo Calderone 1 Affiliation
1 Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, via Bonanno n.6, 56125 Pisa, Italy.
Abstract Background: The vascular endothelium represents a fundamental mechanical and biological barrier for the maintenance of vascular homeostasis along the entire vascular tree. Changes in its integrity are associated to several cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, all linked to the peculiar condition named endothelial dysfunction, which is referred to the loss of endothelial physiological functions, comprehending the regulation of vascular relaxation and/or cell redox balance, the inhibition of leukocyte infiltration and the production of NO. Among the endothelium-released vasoactive factors, in the last years hydrogen sulfide has been viewed as one of the main characters involved in the regulation of endothelium functionality, and many studies demonstrated that H2S behaves as a vasoprotective gasotransmitter in those cardiovascular diseases where endothelial dysfunction seems to be the central issue. Aim: The role of hydrogen sulfide in endothelial dysfunction-related cardiovascular diseases is discussed in this review. Key scientific concepts: Possible therapeutic approaches using molecules able to release H2S. Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; Endothelial dysfunction; H2S-donor; Hydrogen sulfide.