PLoS One. 2017 May 25;12(5):e0178412. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178412. eCollection 2017. Neisius U1,2, Olson E1, Rossi SH1, Ibrahim HA1, Currie G1, Dominiczak AF1, Delles C1. Author information 1BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.2Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
AIMS: The diagnosis of stable angina involves the use of probability estimates based on clinical presentation, age, gender and cardiovascular risk factors. In view of the link between the cardiac and systemic vasculature we tested whether non-invasive measures of systemic micro- and macrovascular structure and function differentiate between individuals with flow-limiting coronary artery disease (CAD) and those with normal coronary arteries (NCA). METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 84 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography for investigation of symptoms of stable angina. Patients were selected for either having significant CAD or NCA (n = 43/41; age, 56±7 vs 57±7 years, P = 0.309). Only microvascular endothelialfunction, measured using the Endo-PAT2000 device to determine reactive hyperaemia index (CAD vs. NCA; 1.9 [1.5; 2.3] vs. 2.1 [1.8; 2.4], P = 0.03) and sonographic carotid plaque score (CAD vs. NCA; 3.0 [1.5; 4.5] vs. 1.2 [0; 2.55], P 0.001) were significantly different between patients with CAD and NCA. No significant differences were detected in reflection magnitude (CAD vs. NCA; 1.7 [1.5; 1.8] % vs 1.7 [1.5; 1.9] %, P = 0.342), pulse wave velocity (CAD vs. NCA; 7.8±1.4 m/sec vs. 8.3±1.5 m/sec, P = 0.186), carotid intima-media thickness (CAD vs. NCA; 0.73±0.10 mm vs. 0.75±0.10 mm, P = 0.518) or carotid distensibility (CAD vs. NCA; 3.8±1.2 10-3/kPa vs. 3.4±0.9 10-3/kPa, P = 0.092). Also, the c-statistic of the pre-test probability based on history and traditional risk factors (c = 0.665; 95% CI, 0.540-0.789) was improved by the addition of the inverse RHI (c = 0.720; 95% CI, 0.605-0.836), carotid plaque score (c = 0.770, 95% CI, 0.659-0.881), and of both markers in combination (c = 0.801; 95% CI, 0.701-0.900).
CONCLUSION: There are distinct differences in the systemic vasculature between patients with CAD and NCA that may have the potential to guide diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Carotid artery plaque burden and microvascular function appear to be most promising in this context. Endothelial Function Scientific Update Sponsored by Endothelix Inc. www.endothelix.com